Sperm Donation Risks: What Are the Potential Complications?

For women and couples struggling with infertility, artificial insemination and other treatments, like sperm donation, may seem like a viable way to have a baby. And while sperm donation is generally safe, there are some risks that potential recipients should be aware of.

What Is Sperm Donation?

Sperm donation or gamete donation is the process of providing sperm to a recipient to achieve a pregnancy. The sperm may be donated by a man to a couple or women who can’t get pregnant, or it may be donated to a sperm bank for use by couples or women who need donor sperm to get pregnant.

The sperm donor undergoes screening for sexually transmitted infections and genetic diseases, and his sperm is frozen for future use.

Similar to how the egg donation process works, sperm donation may be anonymous or known. In some cases, the donors and recipients may have contact with each other before and after the donation or have no contact at all.

What Are the Potential Risks to the Recipient and the Baby?

Some risks are associated with sperm donation, both for the recipient and the baby. These risks include:

1. Infectious Diseases

An infectious disease, such as HIV, is a risk from donated sperm. However, this risk is minimized by the screening process that sperm banks or fertility clinics undergo. All potential donors must have a physical exam, blood tests, and often STD testing before donating.

2. Emotional Difficulties

For some men and women, the emotional difficulties associated with infertility can be exacerbated by sperm donation. Some men may feel like they are capable of fathering a child or that their sperm is not good enough to conceive. Women may feel like they cannot have a child the traditional way, or they may feel like they are less feminine because they cannot conceive.

Couples who use donor sperm may also have difficulty bonding with their child if they do not have contact with the donor. This is especially difficult for couples who choose an anonymous donor and do not have any information about the donor.

As for the child, they may have difficulty understanding their origins and may feel like they do not belong. They can also have a hard time bonding with their father if they know that he is not their biological father.

3. Hereditary Diseases

There is also a risk that the child could inherit a hereditary disease from the donor. However, this can be minimized by choosing a donor who has been screened for genetic diseases. Also, working with a reputable sperm bank or fertility clinic can help prevent this issue.

4. Multiple Births

Another risk associated with sperm donation is multiple births. This is because many fertility treatments, such as artificial insemination, result in a higher chance of twins or triplets. This can be hard on the mother and the babies physically, emotionally, and financially.

Importance of Choosing a Reputable Fertility Treatment Clinic

You should carefully choose a sperm bank or fertility treatment clinic to minimize the risks associated with sperm donation.

Whether you opt for sperm donation or other fertility treatments, such as frozen embryo transfer, the facility should have a rigorous screening process for donors. It should be up-to-date on the latest fertility treatments and have a proven track record of success.